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Schilbe intermedius Rüppell, 1832

Silver catfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat
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Schilbe intermedius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Schilbe intermedius (Silver catfish)
Schilbe intermedius
Picture by Seegers, L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes (Catfish) > Schilbeidae (Schilbid catfishes)
Etymology: intermedius: of this species (Ref. 43912).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 34291), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 34291).   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: Senegal, Gambia, Casamance, Corubal, Geba, Little Scarcies, Sassandra, Boubo, Bandama, Agnébi, Mé, Comoé, Tano, Pra, Volta basin, Mono, Sio, Ouémé, Ogun, entire Niger and Chad basins, Cross, Wouri and Sanaga; absent between Little Scarcies and Sassandra; further in the entire Congo River basin, Malagarasi, Luiche, Cunene, Okavango, entire Zambezi including the Kafue system, Lake Kariba, Nile, Lake Victoria basin, Webi Shebeli, Wando, Tana, Galana, Athi, Wami, Rufiji-Ruaha, Lake Rukwa, lower Sabi-Lundi, Shire below Murchison Falls, Lake Chilwa, Ruvu, Pungwe, Limpopo, Incomati and Pongola (Ref. 43912).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 10.0, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57127); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 43912)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-6; Anal soft rays: 41 - 66. Diagnosis: 8-13 gill rakers (exceptionally 7-14, Ref. 43912) on lower limb of first gill arch; 41-66 branched anal-fin rays; eyes positioned laterally (Ref. 43912, 57127, 81643). In the Nile (Ref. 43912) and in West Africa adipose fin usually absent, but specimens with a rudimentary adipose fin occasionally present (Ref. 43912, 57127, 81643). In Central and East Africa populations without as well as with entirely developed adipose fin occur; in several populations both morphotypes are mixed together, the adipose fin being absent or present but sometimes varying in size from a recognizable protrusion low down the back to a fully developed adipose fin; posterior nostrils always closer to each other than are anterior ones; lower jaw reaches beyond snout but hardly remarkable in some specimens, mouth being almost isognath; inner side of pectoral spine feebly serrated; nasal barbel at least reaching to midway between eye and opercle but often reaching beyond this level; small specimens (up to about 15 cm) with typical colour pattern with dark lateral bands along sides and anal fin, this pattern gradually disappearsing in larger specimens, the body becoming in general entirely brownish, yellowish and silvery with very few traces of dark lateral bands (Ref. 43912).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Reported to be a pelagic species (Ref. 34290), generally abundant in open water, in both lacustrine and fluviatile conditions, often showing shoaling habits; seems to prefer large or rather large rivers and lakes and apparently rarely penetrates small rivers or small affluents (Ref. 43912). Occur mainly on shallow waters. Migrate to the surface at night (Ref. 34291). Surface feeder; nocturnal, omnivorous, voracious and predaceous (Ref. 43912). Feeds on fish (juvenile as well as adults), insects (aquatic as well as terrestrial ones, larvae as well as adult insects), molluscs, freshwater prawns and other crustaceans, algae and bottom-living and planktonic organisms; vegetable material and eggs were also reported from stomach contents (Ref. 43912). Primarily piscivorous at 13-34 cm TL (Ref. 34291, 43912). Rarely grow to lengths greater than 30 cm SL (Ref. 34290). Maximum total length recorded 60.5 cm (Ref. 43912), 52331). Maximum lifetime observed almost 10 years (Ref. 43912). Spawn throughout the year peaking once (Ref. 34291). Migrate into rivers in fairly compact schools during the rainy season to spawn in floodwater pools (Ref. 34291). Reproduction occurs at high water after the floods (Ref. 43912). Oviparous, eggs are unguarded (Ref. 205). Flesh edible and of good flavour; possible aquaculture species (Ref. 43912).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

De Vos, L., 2003. Schilbeidae. p. 97-116 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57127)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 January 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00423 - 0.01131), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=5, probably greater; K=0.1-0.3; Fec = 18,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.